From 2009-17, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) carried out “a regulatory spree unprecedented in U.S. history”—in scope, stringency, and costs, and with highly questionable justifi- cation. The costs of EPA rules dwarf the costs of all other executive branch agencies by a huge margin, accounting for $23 billion of $26 billion total regulatory costs in 2010. While the national econ- omy has been impaired, Texas’ prominent industrial and energy sectors were disproportionately affected.